Transaction Common Fields

Every transaction has the same set of common fields, plus additional fields based on the transaction type. Field names are case-sensitive. The common fields for all transactions are:

Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Account String Account (Required) The unique address of the account that initiated the transaction.
TransactionType String UInt16 (Required) The type of transaction. Valid types include: Payment, OfferCreate, OfferCancel, TrustSet, AccountSet, SetRegularKey, SignerListSet, EscrowCreate, EscrowFinish, EscrowCancel, PaymentChannelCreate, PaymentChannelFund, and PaymentChannelClaim.
Fee String Amount (Required; auto-fillable) Integer amount of XRP, in drops, to be destroyed as a cost for distributing this transaction to the network. Some transaction types have different minimum requirements. See Transaction Cost for details.
Sequence Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Required; auto-fillable) The sequence number, relative to the initiating account, of this transaction. A transaction is only valid if the Sequence number is exactly 1 greater than the previous transaction from the same account. For how to use the Sequence number to invalidate a pending transaction, see Cancel or Skip a Transaction.
AccountTxnID String Hash256 (Optional) Hash value identifying another transaction. If provided, this transaction is only valid if the sending account's previously-sent transaction matches the provided hash.
Flags Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Set of bit-flags for this transaction.
LastLedgerSequence Number UInt32 (Optional; strongly recommended) Highest ledger index this transaction can appear in. Specifying this field places a strict upper limit on how long the transaction can wait to be validated or rejected. See Reliable Transaction Submission for more details.
Memos Array of Objects Array (Optional) Additional arbitrary information used to identify this transaction.
Signers Array Array (Optional) Array of objects that represent a multi-signature which authorizes this transaction.
SourceTag Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Arbitrary integer used to identify the reason for this payment, or a sender on whose behalf this transaction is made. Conventionally, a refund should specify the initial payment's SourceTag as the refund payment's DestinationTag.
SigningPubKey String Blob (Automatically added when signing) Hex representation of the public key that corresponds to the private key used to sign this transaction. If an empty string, indicates a multi-signature is present in the Signers field instead.
TxnSignature String Blob (Automatically added when signing) The signature that verifies this transaction as originating from the account it says it is from.

Removed in: rippled 0.28.0: The PreviousTxnID field of transactions was replaced by the AccountTxnID field. This String / Hash256 field is present in some historical transactions. This is unrelated to the field also named PreviousTxnID in some ledger objects.

AccountTxnID

The AccountTxnID field lets you chain your transactions together, so that a current transaction is not valid unless the previous one (by Sequence Number) is also valid and matches the transaction you expected.

One situation in which this is useful is if you have a primary system for submitting transactions and a passive backup system. If the passive backup system becomes disconnected from the primary, but the primary is not fully dead, and they both begin operating at the same time, you could potentially have serious problems like some transactions sending twice and others not at all. Chaining your transactions together with AccountTxnID ensures that, even if both systems are active, only one of them can submit valid transactions at a time.

To use AccountTxnID, you must first set the asfAccountTxnID flag, so that the ledger keeps track of the ID for the account's previous transaction.

Auto-fillable Fields

Some fields can be automatically filled in before a transaction is signed, either by a rippled server or by a library used for signing such as ripple-lib. Auto-filling values requires an active connection to the XRP Ledger to get the latest state, so it cannot be done offline. Both ripple-lib and rippled can automatically provide the following values:

  • Fee - Automatically fill in the Transaction Cost based on the network. Note: When using rippled's sign command, you can limit the maximum possible auto-filled value, using the fee_mult_max and fee_mult_div parameters.)
  • Sequence - Automatically use the next sequence number for the account sending the transaction.

For a production system, we recommend not leaving these fields to be filled by the server. For example, if transaction costs become high due to a temporary spike in network load, you may want to wait for the cost to decrease before sending some transactions, instead of paying the temporarily-high cost.

The Paths field of the Payment transaction type can also be automatically filled in.

Flags Field

The Flags field can contain various options that affect how a transaction should behave. The options are represented as binary values that can be combined with bitwise-or operations to set multiple flags at once.

To check whether a transaction has a given flag enabled, use the bitwise-and operator on the flag's value and the Flags field. A result of zero indicates the flag is disabled, and a result equal to the flag value indicates the flag is enabled. (Any other result indicates you performed the wrong operation.)

Most flags only have meaning for a specific transaction type. The same bitwise value may be reused for flags on different transaction types, so it is important to pay attention to the TransactionType field when setting and reading flags.

Bits that are not defined as flags MUST be 0. (The fix1543 amendment enforces this rule on some transaction types. Most transaction types enforce this rule by default.)

Global Flags

The only flag that applies globally to all transactions is as follows:

Flag Name Hex Value Decimal Value Description
tfFullyCanonicalSig 0x80000000 2147483648 (Strongly recommended) Require a fully-canonical signature.

When using the sign method (or submit method in "sign-and-submit" mode), rippled adds a Flags field with tfFullyCanonicalSig enabled unless the Flags field is already present. The tfFullyCanonicalSig flag is not automatically enabled if Flags is explicitly specified. The flag is not automatically enabled when using the sign_for method to add a signature to a multi-signed transaction.

Warning: If you do not enable tfFullyCanonicalSig, it is theoretically possible for a malicious actor to modify your transaction signature so that the transaction may succeed with a different hash than expected. In the worst case, this could trick your integration into submitting the same payment multiple times. To avoid this problem, enable the tfFullyCanonicalSig flag on all transactions you sign.

Flag Ranges

A transaction's Flags field can contain flags that apply at different levels or contexts. Flags for each context are limited to the following ranges:

Range Name Bit Mask Description
Universal Flags 0xff000000 Flags that apply equally to all transaction types.
Type-based Flags 0x00ff0000 Flags with different meanings depending on the transaction type that uses them.
Reserved Flags 0x0000ffff Flags that are not currently defined. A transaction is only valid if these flags are disabled.

Note: The AccountSet transaction type has its own non-bitwise flags, which serve a similar purpose to type-based flags. Ledger objects also have a Flags field with different bitwise flag definitions.

Memos Field

The Memos field includes arbitrary messaging data with the transaction. It is presented as an array of objects. Each object has only one field, Memo, which in turn contains another object with one or more of the following fields:

Field Type Internal Type Description
MemoData String Blob Arbitrary hex value, conventionally containing the content of the memo.
MemoFormat String Blob Hex value representing characters allowed in URLs. Conventionally containing information on how the memo is encoded, for example as a MIME type.
MemoType String Blob Hex value representing characters allowed in URLs. Conventionally, a unique relation (according to RFC 5988) that defines the format of this memo.

The MemoType and MemoFormat fields should only consist of the following characters: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789-._~:/?#[]@!$&'()*+,;=%

The Memos field is limited to no more than 1KB in size (when serialized in binary format).

Example of a transaction with a Memos field:

{
    "TransactionType": "Payment",
    "Account": "rMmTCjGFRWPz8S2zAUUoNVSQHxtRQD4eCx",
    "Destination": "r3kmLJN5D28dHuH8vZNUZpMC43pEHpaocV",
    "Memos": [
        {
            "Memo": {
                "MemoType": "687474703a2f2f6578616d706c652e636f6d2f6d656d6f2f67656e65726963",
                "MemoData": "72656e74"
            }
        }
    ],
    "Amount": "1"
}

Signers Field

The Signers field contains a multi-signature, which has signatures from up to 8 key pairs, that together should authorize the transaction. The Signers list is an array of objects, each with one field, Signer. The Signer field has the following nested fields:

Field Type Internal Type Description
Account String AccountID The address associated with this signature, as it appears in the SignerList.
TxnSignature String Blob A signature for this transaction, verifiable using the SigningPubKey.
SigningPubKey String Blob The public key used to create this signature.

The SigningPubKey must be a key that is associated with the Account address. If the referenced Account is a funded account in the ledger, then the SigningPubKey can be that account's current Regular Key if one is set. It could also be that account's Master Key, unless the lsfDisableMaster flag is enabled. If the referenced Account address is not a funded account in the ledger, then the SigningPubKey must be the master key associated with that address.

Because signature verification is a compute-intensive task, multi-signed transactions cost additional XRP to relay to the network. Each signature included in the multi-signature increases the transaction cost required for the transaction. For example, if the current minimum transaction cost to relay a transaction to the network is 10000 drops, then a multi-signed transaction with 3 entries in the Signers array would need a Fee value of at least 40000 drops to relay.