Consensus Network

The XRP Ledger uses a consensus algorithm to resolve the double spend problem and choose which transactions to execute in which order. Consensus also governs rules of transaction processing.

  • Amendments

    Amendments represent new features or other changes to transaction processing. Validators coordinate through consensus to apply these upgrades to the XRP Ledger in an orderly fashion.

  • Consensus Principles and Rules

    The rules and principles of the consensus algorithm that allow users to transfer funds (including fiat currencies, digital currencies and other forms of value) across national boundaries as seamlessly as sending an email.

  • Fee Voting

    How validators vote on fees (transaction cost and reserve requirements).

  • Consensus Research

    Scholarly articles on consensus algorithms and related research.

  • Parallel Networks

    Understand how test networks and alternate ledger chains relate to the production XRP Ledger.